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Korean J Pediatr 2003 June;46(6) :585-590.
Autonomic Neuropathy in Adolescents with Diabetes Mellitus
Eun-Gyong Yoo (Yoo EG), Sun-Young Ahn (Ahn SY), Duk Hee Kim (Kim DH)
Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Corresponding Author: Duk Hee Kim ,Email:
Copyright © 2003 by The Korean Pediatric Society
Purpose : This study is designed to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and its relationship to risk factors in adolescents with diabetes mellitus(DM). Methods : Ninety-two diabetic patients(80 with type 1 DM and 12 with type 2 DM), ranging from eight to 26 years of age, were studied for cardiovascular autonomic function, and the relationship to age, duration of diabetes, glycated hemoglobin(HbA1c), urinary albumin excretion, and the presence of diabetic retinopathy and abnormal nerve conduction velocities(NCV) were analysed. Autonomic function was assessed by measuring heart rate variation during valsalva manoeuvre, deep breathing and standing from a lying position(30 : 15 ratio), and postural hypotension. Results : Among patients with type 1 DM, 22.5% had early, 8.7% had definite, and 1.3% had severe autonomic dysfunction, and among patients with type 2 DM, 16.7% had early, 8.3% had definite, and 8.3% had severe autonomic dysfunction. On logistic regression analysis including both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients, the age of the patient(OR=1.133(1.003-1.279), P<0.05) and duration of diabetes(OR=1.148(1.009-1.307), P<0.05) significantly predicted cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction while HbA1c, blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion, and presence of diabetic retinopathy and abnormal NCV did not. The valsalva ratio was borderline or abnormal in 31.5% of patients, the heart rate variation on deep breathing in 41.3%, the 30 : 15 ratio in 14.1%, and postural hypotension in 9.8% of patients. The valsalva ratio and the heart rate variation on deep breathing significantly predicted cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction, but the 30 : 15 ratio and postural hypotension did not. Conclusion : Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction was found in 32.6% of diabetic patients and 10.8 % of patients had definite or severe involvement. The risk of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction increased with the patient's age and the duration of DM. This study suggests that the valsalva ratio and the heart rate variation on deep breathing are the most useful tests in evaluating the cardiovascular autonomic function in children and adolescents with DM.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus | Autonomic neuropathy | Adolescents
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