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Korean J Pediatr 2007 July;50(7) :606-612.
Solid tumors in childhood: risk-based management
Hong Hoe Koo (Koo HH)
Department of Pediatrics, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
Corresponding Author: Hong Hoe Koo ,Email:
Copyright © 2007 by The Korean Pediatric Society
Since the introduction of chemotherapy for the treatment of childhood leukemia more than 50 years ago, the results of childhood cancer have improved dramatically. The 5-year survival rate of disease, many of which were uniformly fatal in the prechemotherapy era, reached to more than 75%. This remarkable improvement in survival is a direct result of the incorporation of chemotherapeutics into treatment regimens that previously relied only on surgery or radiotherapy for the primary tumor. The multimodality approach, which integrates surgery and radiotherapy to control local disease with chemotherapy to eradicate systemic or metastatic disease, has become the standard approach to treating most childhood cancers. The overall improvement in outcomes in childhood solid tumors has been related to the development of multidisplinary cooperative studies that has permitted the development of well-designed tumor treatment protocols characterized by uniform staging criteria, sharing informations in pathologic classification, uniform methods for tumor markers, oncogenes, and other biologic and genetic factors. Important advances in the biologic study of cancer and its genetic basis led to a number of observations that impact directly on the management of childhood solid tumors. Identification of specific genes, oncogenes, tumor markers, and other biologic and pathologic factors plays an important role in both staging and clarifying the risk categorization of individual patients. Treatment of the patient is influenced by the recognition of specific risk factors. This knowledge has resulted in a change in the approach to care based not only on staging criteria, but also on risk-based management. This concept uses various risk factors of outcomes. Risk-based management allows for each patient to maximize survival, minimize long-term morbidity and improve the quality of life, especially for children's growth and development.
Keywords: Solid tumors | Risk-based | Childhood
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