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Korean J Pediatr 2007 July;50(7) :660-664.
The effectiveness of urokinase in treatment of pleural effusion in children
Ga-yeon Nam (Nam GY), Hee-ju Park (Park HJ)
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea
Corresponding Author: Hee-ju Park ,Email:
Copyright © 2007 by The Korean Pediatric Society
Purpose : Pleural effusion is a common complications of pediatric bacterial pneumonia. Intrapleural administration of fibrinolytic agents such as urokinase have been used in the management of complicated parapneumonic effusions. But the safety and effectiveness of intrapleural urokinase instillations in children has not been confirmed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of intraperitoneal urokinase in children. Methods : We reviewed a total of 29 children diagnosed as parapneumonic effusion with septation by chest CT or chest ultrasonography. We divided them into two groups. Fourteen children treated with urokinase after thoracostomy (Group A) were compared with 15 children treated only with thoracostomy (Group B). The urokinase, 3,000 IU/kg/day, was injected into the pleural cavity twice a day. Results : There was no statistical difference in sex and age between the two groups. Total drainage volume during thoracostomy in group A and B was 375.5 mL and 350.0 mL, respectively. It was not statistically significant. But the amounts of pleural fluid of group A on day 1, day 2 and day 3 were 102.5 mL, 100.0 mL, and 70.0 mL respectively and those of group B on day 1, day 2 and say 3 were 120.0 mL, 50.0 mL and 15.0 mL respectively. To compare group A with group B in the amounts of drainage volume on day 1 was not statistically significant, but the amounts of drainage volumes on day 2 and day 3 in group A were statistically more significant than group B (Day 1 P=0.371, Day 2 P=0.049, Day 3 P=0.048, respectively). The duration of fever, antibiotics, thoracostomy and total hospital days. Were not statistically significant between the two groups. But the frequency of complications in Group A was statictically significantly lower than in group B. Conclusion : Intrapleural instillation of urokinase facilitates the drainage of loculated pleural effusions, especially during the first 3 days, and it could reduce complications, such as pleural thickening, surgical managements, re-positioning of tube and re-thoracostomy. So intrapleural urokinase injection was and effective and safe treatment of pleural effusion in children (P=0.014).
Keywords: Urokinase | Pleural effusion | In children
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