Advanced Search
Korean J Pediatr 2007 December;50(12) :1188-1193.
Subclinical rickets in breastfed infants
Sin Young Park (Park SY), Sung Woo Park (Park SW), Sung Kil Kang (Kang SK), Yong Hoon Jun (Jun YH), Soon Ki Kim (Kim SK), Byong Kwan Son (Son BK), Jee Eun Lee (Lee JE)
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, Korea
Corresponding Author: Jee Eun Lee ,Email:
Copyright © 2007 by The Korean Pediatric Society
Purpose : The prevalence of rickets in the world is on the rise not only in developing but also in developed countries. In Korea, breastfeeding has increased. There have been few studies on the possible association of rickets with breastfeeding. The purpose of this study was to identify the development and the clinical presentation of subclinical rickets in breastfed infants. Methods : We investigated patients who were breastfed and had hypovitaminosis D in the blood from May 2006 to April 2007, and who were diagnosed with vitamin D deficient rickets from May 2003 to April 2006. We evaluated the results of blood tests, x-rays and other relevant information in the medical record. A questionnaire that included questions on the diet of patients, the mothers activity during pregnancy and place of residence was administered. Results : Twelve patients (66%: male, 34%: female) were enrolled in this study. There were eight in the asymptomatic and four in the symptomatic group. The median age for each group was 8 months (range 4-11 month) and 5.5 months (5-8 month). All patients in the symptomatic group were breastfed until diagnosed. In the asymptomatic group, they were breastfed for four to six months, and then weaned with only thin rice soup and vegetables. Nine patients had a vitamin D concentration below 20 ng/mL and three patients had levels between 20 and 29 ng/mL. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were elevated in both groups. There were statistically significant 25-OHD3 levels in the blood in both groups (P=0.008). Ten of the patients (83%) also had iron deficient anemia. Conclusion : Vitamin D deficiency and subclinical rickets has been identified in Korea. However, the prevalence of this disease has not been determined. The main limitation of this study was the small number of patients and the absence of a control group.
Keywords: Rickets | Breast milk | Vitamin D
PDF Links  PDF Links
Full text via DOI  Full text via DOI
Download Citation  Download Citation
Supplementary Material  Supplementary Material
Maternal food restrictions during breastfeeding  2017 March;60(3)
Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants  2011 September;54(9)
Enteral nutrition of the premature infant  2010 January;53(1)
Thyroid dysfunction in premature infants  2009 September;52(9)
Acid Steatocrit in Korean Infants  2002 March;45(3)
Register for e-submission
Register here to access the e-submission system of Korean J Pediatr for authors and reviewers.
Manuscript Submission
To submit a manuscript, please visit the Korean J Pediatr e-submission management system at, read the Instructions for Authors, and log into the Korean J Pediatr e-submission system. For assistance with manuscript submission, please contact:
Free archive
Anyone may access any past or current articles without logging in.
Korean Pediatric Society Office
#1606, Seocho World Officetel, 19 Seoun-ro, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-070, Korea
TEL : +82-2-3473-7305    FAX : +82-2-3473-7307   E-mail:
BrowseCurrent IssueFor Authors and ReviewersAbout
Copyright© The Korean Pediatric Society. All right reserved.