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REVIEW ARTICLE
Korean J Pediatr 2009 February;52(2) :142-151.
doi:https://doi.org/10.3345/kjp.2009.52.2.142
Growth and sex differentiation of children born small for gestational age
Se Young Kim (Kim SY)
Department of Pediatrics, Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Daejin Medical Center
Corresponding Author: Se Young Kim ,Email: odajulia@dmc.or.kr
Copyright © 2009 by The Korean Pediatric Society
ABSTRACT
The incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) births is frequent, accounting for 2.3% to 8% of all live births. Several childhood and adult diseases are related to early postnatal growth and birth size, and 10% of children born SGA may have a short stature throughout postnatal life. Additionally, they may have abnormal growth hormone (GH)-insulin like growth factor axis, HPA axis, and gonadal function. Permanent changes are detrimental in an environment of nutritional abundance, and predispose SGA children to an array of diseases in adolescence and adulthood. Such changes may also cause premature pubarche, adrenarche, and precocious puberty. The varying results from clinical studies necessitate more prospective case control studies. Reproductive tract abnormalities and reproductive dysfunction are related to SGA births. GH treatment is required for SGA infants who do not experience catch-up growth.
Keywords: Small for gestational age | Growth | Growth hormone | Premature pubarche | Precocious puberty | Adrenarche | Reproductive function
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