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REVIEW ARTICLE
Korean J Pediatr 2014 September;57(9) :384-395.
Published online 2014 July 23.       
Febrile seizures
Sajun Chung
Department of Pediatrics, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Corresponding Author: Sajun Chung ,Tel: +82-2-958-8295, Fax: +82-2-958-8845, Email: sajchung@khmc.or.kr
Copyright © 2014 by The Korean Pediatric Society
ABSTRACT
Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure disorder of childhood, and occurs in an age-related manner. FS are classified into simple and complex. FS has a multifactorial inheritance, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors are causative. Various animal models have elucidated the pathophysiological mechanisms of FS. Risk factors for a first FS are a family history of the disorder and a developmental delay. Risk factors for recurrent FS are a family history, age below 18 months at seizure onset, maximum temperature, and duration of fever. Risk factors for subsequent development of epilepsy are neurodevelopmental abnormality and complex FS. Clinicians evaluating children after a simple FS should concentrate on identifying the cause of the childs fever. Meningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any febrile child. A simple FS does not usually require further evaluation such as ordering electroencephalography, neuroimaging, or other studies. Treatment is acute rescue therapy for prolonged FS. Antipyretics are not proven to reduce the recurrence risk for FS. Some evidence shows that both intermittent therapy with oral/rectal diazepam and continuous prophylaxis with oral phenobarbital or valproate are effective in reducing the risk of recurrence, but there is no evidence that these medications reduce the risk of subsequent epilepsy. Vaccine-induced FS is a rare event that does not lead to deleterious outcomes, but could affect patient and physician attitudes toward the safety of vaccination.
Keywords: Febrile seizures | Classification | Child | Epilepsy
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