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Korean J Pediatr 2015 December;58(12) :491-500.
Published online 2015 December 15.       
Intercontinental comparison of caustic ingestion in children
Mandana Rafeey1, Morteza Ghojazadeh2, Amir Mehdizadeh2, Hakimeh Hazrati2, Leila Vahedi2
1Division of Gastroenterology, Tabriz Children's Hospital, Tabriz University Medical Sciences, Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases Research Center, Tabriz,Iran
2Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
Corresponding Author: Leila Vahedi ,Tel: +98-914-1042900, Fax: +98-411-3373741, Email:
Copyright © 2015 by The Korean Pediatric Society
Purpose: To investigate the caustic ingestion in children among different continents according to demographic characteristics (core purpose), main symptoms, common caustic agents, signs and symptoms, management, treatment and complications.
Methods: This systematic review was performed by searching the databases Science Direct, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and PubMed, electronically and manually. We included studies that were published from 1980 to 2013, at University of Medical Sciences of Tabriz, Iran. A strategic search was performed with keywords including caustic, corrosive, ingestion and children, and was limited to articles in English and Persian. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS ver. 18.
Results: Of 63 selected articles of caustic ingestion with 9,888 samples, the proportion of Africa was 3 articles (4.8%) and 95 samples (1%), America 9 articles (14.3%) and 305 sample (3%), Asia 29 articles (46%) and 2,780 samples (28.1%), Europe 17 articles (27%) and 3,002 samples (30.4%), and Oceania 5 articles (7.9%) and 3,706 samples (37.5%). The average age was in the Africa 3.072.02 years, America 3.171.83 years, Asia 3.341.58 years, Europe 3.582.09 years and Oceania 3.522.02 years. Sex distribution was in Africa 76 males (0.91%) and 19 females (0.23%), America 49 males (0.58%) and 41 females (0.49%), Asia 1,575 males (18.76%) and 1,087 females (12.95%), Europe 1,018 males (12.13%) and 823 females (9.8%), and Oceania 1,918 males (22.85%) and 1,788 females (21.3%). Statistical analysis of the data indicated higher consumption in Europe and Oceania in the boys with higher average age of years.
Conclusion: The comparison of caustic ingestion indicated that the cause substances of caustic ingestion in children are different among continents, therefore prevention strategy and different treatment guidelines among continents will be needed.
Keywords: Caustic ingestion | Systematic review | Children | Continents
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